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Role of Cabbeling in Water Densification in the Greenland Basin : ...

By: T. Johannessen; Y. Kasajima

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allégaten 70, 5007 Bergen, Norway. The effects of cabbeling mixing on water mass modification in the Greenland Sea were explored by hydrographic observations across the Greenland Basin in summer 2006. The neutral surface was chosen as a reference frame, and the strength of cabbeling mixing was quantified by the dianeutral velocity magnitude. Active cabbeling spots were detected with the criterion of the veloc...

% vor jede Referenz Akitomo, K.: Open-ocean deep convection due to thermobaricity 1. Scaling argument, J. Geophys., Res. 104(C3), 5225–5234, 1999.; % vor jede Referenz Bönisch, G., Blindheim, J., Bullister, J., Schlosser, P., and Wallace, D.: Long-term trends of temperature, salinity, density and transient tracers in the central Greenland Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18553–18571, 1997.; % vor jede Referenz Budéus, G., Schneider, W., and Krause, G. : Winter convective even...

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Monitoring Ocean Heat Content from the Current Generation of Globa...

By: S. Speich; C. Cabanes; K. Von Schuckmann; M. Hamon; P.-y. Le Traon; F. Gaillard; D. Chambers; J.-b. Sallée

Description: Ifremer, Toulon, France. Variations in the world's ocean heat storage and its associated volume changes are a key factor to gauge global warming and to assess the Earth's energy budget. It is also directly link to sea level change, which has a direct impact on coastal populations. Understanding and monitoring heat and sea level change is therefore one of the major legacies of current global ocean observing systems. In this study, we present an in...

Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Valladeau, G., and Guinehut, S.: A~new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993–2008, Ocean Sci., 5, 193–201, www.ocean-sci.net/5/193/2009/., 2009.; Barker, P. M., Dunn, J. R., Domingues, C. M., and Wijffels, S. E.: Pressure sensor drifts in Argo and their impacts,~J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 28, 1036–1049, 2011.; Bettadpur, S.: UTCSR Level-2 Pr...

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Deep Ocean Exchange with West-european Shelf Seas : Volume 5, Issu...

By: J. T. Holt; S. L. Wakelin; J. M. Huthnance

Description: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L3 5DA, UK. We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf seas. Well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain give exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf). Prevailing westerly winds further north drive exchange O(1 m2/s). Poleward flow along most of the upper slope has...

Allen, J. I., Blackford, J., Holt, J. T., Proctor, R., Ashworth M., and Siddorn, J.: A highly spatially resolved ecosystem model for the North West European continental shelf, Sarsia, 86, 423–440, 2001.; Booth, D. A.: Horizontal dispersion in the north east Atlantic, Deep-Sea Res., 35, 1937–1951, 1988.; Barton, E. D., Inall, M. E., Sherwin, T. J., and Torres, R.: Vertical structure, turbulent mixing and fluxes during Lagrangian observations of an upwelling filament syste...

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The Wind-driven Overturning Circulation of the World Ocean : Volum...

By: K. Döös

Description: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. The wind driven aspects of the meridional overturning circulation of the world ocean and the Conveyor Belt is studied making use of a simple analytical model. The model consists of three reduced gravity layers with an inviscid Sverdrupian interior and a western boundary layer. The net north-south exchange is made possible by setting appropriate western boundary conditions, so that...

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Evaluating Two Numerical Advection Schemes in Hycom for Eddy-resol...

By: J. A. Johannessen; L. Bertino; B. C. Backeberg

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, South Africa. A 4th order advection scheme is applied in a nested eddy-resolving Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) of the greater Agulhas Current system for the purpose of testing advanced numerics as a means for improving the model simulation for eventual operational implementation. Model validation techniques comparing sea surface height variations, sea level skewness and variogram analyses to s...

Backeberg, B. C., Johannessen, J. A., Bertino, L., and Reason, C. J.: The greater Agulhas Current system: An integrated study of its mesoscale variability, Journal of Operational Oceanography, 1(1), 29–44, 2008.; Barnier, B., Madec, M., Pendruff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., Sommer, J. L., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Bnning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and DeCuevas, B.: Impact ...

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Comparing the Steric Height in the Northern Atlantic with Satellit...

By: D. V. Sidorenko; D. L. Aleynik; S. D. Danilov; V. O. Ivchenko; J. Schröter; M. Wenzel

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. Anomalies of dynamic height derived from an analysis of Argo profiling buoys data are analysed to assess the relative roles of contributions from temperature and salinity over the North Atlantic for the period of 1999–2004. They are compared with dynamic topography anomalies based on TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason altimetry. It is shown that the halosteric contribution to the anomal...

Antonov, J. I., Levitus, S., and Boyer, T. P.: Steric sea level variations during 1957–1994: Importance of salinity. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8013, doi:10.1029/2001JC000964, 2002.; Bretherton, F. P., Davis, R. E., and Fandry, C. B.: A technique for objective analysis and design of oceanographic experiments applied to MODE-73, Deep-Sea Res., 23, 559–582, 1976.; Gandin, L. S.: Objective analysis of meteorological fields. \em Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 287 pp. (in Russi...

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Super-ensemble Techniques Applied to Wave Forecast: Performance an...

By: C. Troupin; M. Rixen; L. Vandenbulcke; J.-m. Beckers; F. Lenartz; J. Chiggiato; B. Mourre

Description: NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC), Viale San Bartolomeo 400, 19126 La Spezia, Italy. Nowadays, several operational ocean wave forecasts are available for a same region. These predictions may considerably differ, and to choose the best one is generally a difficult task. The super-ensemble approach, which consists in merging different forecasts and past observations into a single multi-model prediction system, is evaluated in this study. During the DART...

Cavaleri, L. and Bertotti, L.: In search of the correct wind and wave fields in a minor basin, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 1964–1975, 1997.; Ardhuin, F., Jenkins, A. D., Hauser, D., Reniers, A., and Chapron, B.: Waves and operational oceanography: toward a coherent description of the upper ocean, Eos Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 86, 37–44, 2005.; Booij, N., Ris, R. C., and Holthuijsen, L. H.: A third-generation wave model for coastal regions{,} P}art1{., {M}odel...

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Transformation of an Agulhas Eddy Near the Continental Slope : Vol...

By: Y. Zhang; G. R. Flierl; S. Baker-yeboah; G. G. Sutyrin

Description: Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. The transformation of Agulhas eddies near the continental slope of South Africa and their subsequent self-propagation are analyzed in both observational data and numerical simulations. Self-propagation results from a net dipole moment of a generalized heton structure consisting of a surface-intensified anticyclonic eddy and deep cycl...

An, B. W. and McDonald, N. R.: Coastal currents and eddies and their interaction with topography, Dynam. Atmos. Oceans, 40, 237–253, 2005.; Arhan, M., Mercier, H., and Lutjeharms, J. R. E.: The disparate evolution of three Agulhas rings in the South Atlantic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 20 987–21 005, 1999.; Baker-Yeboah, S.: Sea Surface Height Variability and the Structure of Eddies in the South Atlantic Cape Basin, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Rhode Island, Narra...

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Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-composit...

By: G. M. Marion; R. Pawlowicz; T. J. McDougall; D. G. Wright; R. Feistel

Description: Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2, Canada. Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy...

Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO Standard Seawater: definition of the uncertainty in the calibration procedure, and stability of recent batches, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 24, 1785–1799, 2007.; Brewer, P. G. and Bradshaw, A.: The effect of non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. Mar. Res., 33, 157–175, 1975.; Chen, C.-T. A.: Shelf-vs. dissolution-generated alkalinity above the chemical lysocline, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 5365–53...

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Malvinas-slope Water Intrusions on the Northern Patagonia Continen...

By: R. A. Guerrero; E. D. Palma; F. P. Jardón; S. I. Romero; N. Martínez Avellaneda; A. R. Piola

Description: Departamento Oceanografía, Servicio de Hidrografía Naval, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Patagonia continental shelf located off southeastern South America is bounded offshore by the Malvinas Current, which extends northward from northern Drake Passage (~55° S) to nearly 38° S. The transition between relatively warm-fresh shelf waters and Subantarctic Waters from the western boundary current is characterized by a thermohaline front extending nearly 2500 k...

Acha, E. M., Mianzan, H. W., Guerrero, R. A., Favero, M., and Bava, J.: Marine fronts at the continental shelves of austral South America, physical and ecological processes, J. Mar. Syst., 44, 83–105, 2004.; Beardsley, R. C. and Flagg, C. N.: The water structure, mean currents, and shelf-water/slope-water-front on the New England continental shelf, in: Continental Shelf Dynamics, edited by: Nihoul, J. C. J., pp. 209–225, Siege de la Soc. Univ., Liege, Belgium, 1976.; Ber...

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A New 3-d Modelling Method to Extract Subtransect Dimensions from ...

By: L. Fillinger; T. Funke

Description: Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Alten Hafen 26, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany. Underwater video transects have become a common tool for quantitative analysis of the seafloor. However a major difficulty remains in the accurate determination of the area surveyed as underwater navigation can be unreliable and image scaling does not always compensate for distortions due to perspective and topography. Depending on the...

Althaus, F., Williams, A., Schlacher, T. A., Kloser, R. J., Green, M. A., Barker, B. A., Bax, N. J., Brodie, P., and Schlacher-Hoenlinger, M. A.: Impacts of bottom trawling on deep-coral ecosystems of seamounts are long-lasting, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 397, 279–294, doi:10.3354/meps08248, 2009.; Amado-Filho, G. M., Pereira-Filho, G. H., Bahia, R. G., Abrantes, D. P., Veras, P. C., and Matheus, Z.: Occurrence and distribution...

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Large-scale Temperature and Salinity Changes in the Upper Canadian...

By: J. Zhao; J. Shi; J. C. Gascard; P. Bourgain

Description: LOCEAN, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France. Between 2008 and 2010, the Arctic Oscillation index over Arctic regions shifted from positive values corresponding to more cyclonic conditions prevailing during IPY period (2007–2008) to extremely negative values corresponding to strong anticyclonic conditions in 2010. In this context, we investigated the recent large scale evolution of the upper Western Arctic Ocean based on temperature and sa...

Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E. C.: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94(10), 14485–14498, 1989.; Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. A, 28, 529–545, 1981.; Bourgain, P. and Gascard, J. C.: The Arctic Ocean halocline and its interannual variability from 1997 to 2008, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 58, 745–756, 2011.; Beal, M. A., Edvalson, F., Hunkins, K., Molloyl, A...

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Towards an Improved Description of Ocean Uncertainties: Effect of ...

By: D. Béal; M. Meinvielle; M. Doron; J.-m. Brankart; C. Fontana; C.-e. Testut; P. Brasseur; J. Verron

Description: LEGI/CNRS, UMR5519, Grenoble, France. The objective of this paper is to investigate if the description of ocean uncertainties can be significantly improved by applying a local anamorphic transformation to each model variable, and by making the assumption of joint Gaussianity for the transformed variables, rather than for the original variables. For that purpose, it is first argued that a significant improvement can already be obtained by deriving the ...

Anscombe, F. J.: Graphs in Statistical Analysis, American Statistician, 27, 17–21, 1973.; Bertino, L., Evensen, G., and Wackernagel, H.: Sequential Data Assimilation Techniques in Oceanography, Int. Statist. Rev., 71, 223–241, 2003.; Béal, D., Brasseur, P., Brankart, J.-M., Ourmières, Y., and Verron, J.: Characterization of mixing errors in a coupled physical biogeochemical model of the North Atlantic: implications for nonlinear estimation using Gaussian anamorphosis, Oc...

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Computation of a New Mean Dynamic Topography for the Mediterranean...

By: A. Pascual; P.-m. Poulain; M. Menna; B. Barceló; M.-h. Rio; J. Tintoré

Description: CLS Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville-Ste Agne, France. The accurate knowledge of the ocean's mean dynamic topography (MDT) is a crucial issue for a number of oceanographic applications and, in some areas of the Mediterranean Sea, important limitations have been found pointing to the need of an upgrade. We present a new MDT that was computed for the Mediterranean Sea. It profits from improvements made possible by the use of extended data sets and ...

Adani, M., Dobricic, S., and Pinardi, N.: Quality Assessment of a 1985–2007 Mediterranean Sea Reanalysis, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 28, 569–589, 2011.; Alemany, F., Quintanilla, L., Velez-Belchí, P., García, A., Cortés, D., Rodríguez, J. M., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., González-Pola, C., and López-Jurado, J. L.: Characterization of the spawning habitat of Atlantic bluefin tuna and related species in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 86, 21–38, 201...

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Short-term Impacts of Enhanced Greenland Freshwater Fluxes in an E...

By: J. L. Bamber; Y. Aksenov; B. A. De Cuevas; D. Desbruyères; R. Marsh; A. C. Coward

Description: School of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, European Way, Southampton, Hampshire SO14 3ZH, UK. In a sensitivity experiment, an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model is forced with freshwater fluxes from the Greenland Ice Sheet, averaged for the period 1991–2000. The fluxes are obtained with a mass balance model for the ice sheet, forced with the ERA-40 reanalysis dataset. The freshwater flux is distributed around ...

Bacon, S., Reverdin, G., Rigor, I. G., and Snaith, H. M.: A freshwater jet on the east Greenland Shelf, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C7), 1–5, doi:10.1029/2001JC000935, 2002.; Bigg, G. R., Wadley, M. R., Stevens, D. P., and Johnson, J. A.: Modelling the dynamics and thermodynamics of icebergs, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 26, 113–135, 1997.; Campin, J. M., Marshall, J., and Ferreira, D.: Sea-ice ocean coupling using a rescaled vertical coordinate z*, Ocean Model., 24, 1–14, 2008.; ...

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The Link Between the Barents Sea and Enso Events Simulated by Nemo...

By: V. N. Stepanov; K. Haines; H. Zuo

Description: Dept. of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK. An analysis of observational data in the Barents Sea along a meridian at 33°30' E between 70°30' and 72°30' N has reported a negative correlation between El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and water temperature in the top 200 m: the temperature drops about 0.5 °C during warm ENSO events while during cold ENSO events the top 200 m layer of the Barents Sea is warmer.

Resu...

Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Balmaseda, M. A., Vidard, A., and Anderson, D. L. T.: The ECMWF ocean analysis system: ORAS3, Mon. Weather Rev., 136, 3018–3034. doi:10.1175/2008MWR2433.1, 2008.; Barnier, B. and the DRAKKAR Group: Eddy-permitting ocean circulation hindcasts of past decades, ...

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The Structure of the Persian Gulf Outflow Subjected to Density Var...

By: M. Ezam; A. A. Bidokhti

Description: Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6466, Tehran, Iran. Oceanographic data and a dynamic model are used to consider the structure of Persian Gulf outflow. This outflow influences the physical properties of Oman seawater which appear in the CTD profiles of the Oman Sea. The observations show that thickness of the outflow, which is banked against the Oman coasts due to the earth rotation, is about 200 m with tongues extending eas...

Reynolds, R. M.: Overview of physical oceanographic measurements taken during the Mt Mitchell Cruise to the ROPME Sea Area, Mar. Pollution Bull., 27, 35–59, 1993.; Bidokhti, A. A.: Shear induced splitting of a plume outflow in a stratified enclosed basin, Indian J. Mar. Sci., 34(2), 192–211, 2005.; Bower, A. S., Hunt, H. D., and Price, J. F.: Character and dynamics of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows, J. Geophys. Res., 105(C3), 6387–6414, 2000.; Chao S. Y., Kao, T. ...

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A Comparison Between Gradient Descent and Stochastic Approaches fo...

By: R. Gerdes; C. Köberle; F. Kauker; M. Karcher; H. Sumata

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. Two types of optimization methods were applied to a parameter optimization problem in a coupled ocean–sea ice model, and applicability and efficiency of the respective methods were examined. One is a finite difference method based on a traditional gradient descent approach, while the other adopts genetic algorithms as an example of stochastic approaches. Several series of...

Athias, V., Mazzega, P., and Jeandel, C.: Selecting a global optimization method to estimate the oceanic particle cycling rate constants, J. Mar. Res., 58, 675–707, 2000.; Bocquet, M.: Parameter-field estimation for atmospheric dispersion: application to the Chernobyl accident using 4D-Var, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 138, 664–681, 2012.; Carroll, D. L.: Chemical Laser Modeling with Genetic Algorithms, AIAA J., 34, 338–346, 1996.; Cetin, B. C., Barhen, J., and Burdick, J. W...

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El Niño in a Changing Climate: a Multi-model Study : Volume 2, Iss...

By: S. Philip; M. Collins; G. J. Van Oldenborgh

Description: KNMI, De Bilt, The Netherlands. In many parts of the world, climate projections for the next century depend on potential changes in the properties of the El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The current staus of these projections is assessed by examining a large set of climate model experiments prepared for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Firstly, the patterns and time series of present-day ENSO-like model...

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Mechanisms of Amoc Variability Simulated by the Nemo Model : Volum...

By: V. N. Stepanov; K. Haines

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, UK. We have investigated dominant mechanisms of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) variability at 26.5° N (without the Ekman component) on monthly timescales using 1° and 1/4° NEMO model data. All data were detrended and the seasonal cycle removed. The spatial lead-lag correlations of different hydrodynamic fields with the AMOC time series were calculated.

The ana...

Adcroft A., Hill C., and Marshall J.: Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean model, Mon. Weather Rev., 125, 2293–2315, 1997.; Barnier, B. and the DRAKKAR Group: Eddy-permitting ocean circulation hindcasts of past decades, Clivar Exchanges, 12, 8–10, 2007.; Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J. M., Treguier, A. M., Le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Böning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, J., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Ta...

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