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Meris-based Ocean Colour Classification with the Discrete Forel–ul...

By: H. J. Van Der Woerd; M. R. Wernand; A. Hommersom

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Physical Oceanography, Marine Optics and Remote Sensing, P.O. Box 59, 1790AB Den Burg, Texel, the Netherlands. Multispectral information from satellite borne ocean colour sensors is at present used to characterize natural waters via the retrieval of concentrations of the three dominant optical constituents; pigments of phytoplankton, non-algal particles and coloured dissolved organic matter. A limitation of t...

Antoine, D., Morel, A., Gordon, H. R., Banzon, V. F., and Evans, R. H.: Bridging ocean colour observations of the 1980s and 2000s in search of long-term trends, J. Geophys. Res. 110, C06009, doi:10.1029/2004JC002620, 2005.; Behrenfeld, M. J., O'Malley, R. T., Siegel, D. A., McClain, C. R., Sarmiento, J. L., Feldman, G. C., Milligan, A. J., Falkowski, P. G., Letelier, R. M., and Boss, E. S.: Climate-driven trends in conte...

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The Vertical Structure of Oceanic Rossby Waves: a Comparison of Hi...

By: R. Tailleux; F. K. Hunt; J. J.-m. Hirschi

Description: Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Tests of the new Rossby wave theories that have been developed over the past decade to account for discrepancies between theoretical wave speeds and those observed by satellite altimeters have focused primarily on the surface signature of such waves. It appears, however, that the surface signature of the waves acts only as a rather weak constrai...

Anderson, D. L. and Gill, A. E.: Spin-up of a stratified ocean, with application to upwelling, Deep-Sea Res. , 22, 583–596, 1975.; Anderson, D. L. and Killworth, P. D.: Spin-up of a stratified ocean, with topography, Deep-Sea Res., 24, 709–732, 1977.; Aoki, K., Kubokawa, A., Sasaki, H., and Sasai, Y.: Mid-latitude Baroclinic Rossby wave in a high-resolution OGCM Simulation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2264–2279, 2009.; Barnier, B.: Forcing the Ocean, in: Ocean Modelling and ...

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Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Observations in the Southern Cas...

By: V. Chegini; P. Ghaffari

Description: Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1022, Blindern, 0315, Oslo, Norway. The results of offshore bottom-mounted ADCP measurements and wind records carried out from August to September 2003 in the coastal waters off Feridoon-kenar Bay (FB) in the south Caspian Sea (CS) are examined in order to characterize the shelf motion, the steady current field and to determine the main driving forces of currents on the study area. Owing to closed b...

Baidin, S. S. and Kosarev, A. N.: The Caspian Sea, Hydrology and Hydrochemistry, Nauka Moscow, Russia, 1986.; Beardsley, R. C., Limeburner, R., and Rosenfeld, L. K.: Introduction to the CODE-2 moored array and large-scale data report, edited by: Limeburner, R., Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1985.; Bondarenko, A. L.: Currents of the Caspian Sea and formation of salinity of the waters of the north part of the Caspian Sea, Nauka, Moscow, Russia, 1993.; Bondarenko, A...

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On the Multiple Time Scales of Variability in the Northeast Pacifi...

By: R. Tokmakian

Description: Department of Oceanography, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, USA. The spatial and temporal sea surface height energy distribution of the Northeast Pacific Ocean is described and discussed. Using an altimetric data set covering 15 years (1993–2007), the energy within the 3–9 month band is primarily located within 10° of the coast. In the Gulf of Alaska, this energy signal is on the shelf, while further south, west of the California/Oregon...

Meyers, S. D., Kelly, B. G., and O'Brien, J. J.: An introduction to wavelet analysis in oceanography and meteorology: With application to the dispersion of Yanai waves, Mon. Weather Rev., 21, 2858–2866, 1993. \bibitem[{Smith and Sandwell}(1996)] smith1996 Smith, W. H. F. and Sandwell, D. T.: Global seafloor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings, Science, 277, 195–196, 1996.; Strub, P. T. and James, C.: Altimeter-derived surface circulation in the l...

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Evaluating Two Numerical Advection Schemes in Hycom for Eddy-resol...

By: L. Bertino; J. A. Johannessen; B. C. Backeberg

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, South Africa. A 4th order advection scheme is applied in a nested eddy-resolving Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) of the greater Agulhas Current system for the purpose of testing advanced numerics as a means for improving the model simulation for eventual operational implementation. Model validation techniques comparing sea surface height variations, sea level skewness and variogram analyses to ...

Backeberg, B. C., Johannessen, J. A., Bertino, L., and Reason, C. J.: The greater Agulhas Current system: An integrated study of its mesoscale variability, Journal of Operational Oceanography, 1(1), 29–44, 2008.; Barnier, B., Madec, M., Pendruff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., Sommer, J. L., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Bönning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and DeCuevas, B.: Impact...

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Phytoplankton Blooms on the Western Shelf of Tasmania: Evidence of...

By: J. Kämpf

Description: School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia. Analyses of >10 years of satellite-derived ocean-color data reveal the existence of a highly productive ecosystem on the west Tasmanian shelf. A closer event-based analysis indicates that the nutrient supply for this system has two different dynamical origins: (a) wind-driven coastal upwelling and (b) river plumes. During austral summer months, the west Tasmanian shelf forms a p...

Conolly, J. R. and Von der Borch, C. C.: Sedimentation and physiography of the sea floor south of Australia, Sediment. Geol., 1, 181–220, doi:10.1016/0037-0738(67)90059-0, 1967.; Cresswell, G.: Currents of the continental shelf and upper slope of Tasmania, Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 133, 21–30, 2000.; Gibbs, C. F., Tomczak, M., and Longmore, A. R.: The nutrient regime of Bass Strait,...

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Geothermal Heating, Diapycnal Mixing and the Abyssal Circulation :...

By: G. Madec; J. Emile-geay

Description: Département Terre-Atmosphère-Océan, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Paris, France. The dynamical role of geothermal heating in abyssal circulation is reconsidered using three independent methods.

First, we show that a uniform geothermal heat flux close to the observed average (86.4 mW m−2) supplies as much heat to the abyss as diapycnal mixing with a rate of ~1 cm2 s−1. A simple scaling law, based upon a purely adve...

Adcroft, A., Scott, J R., and Marotzke, J.: Impact of geothermal heating on the global ocean circulation, Geophys. Res. Let., 29, 1735–1738, 2001.; Adkins, J. F., Ingersoll, A. P., and Pasquero, C.: Rapid climate change and conditional instability of the glacial deep ocean from the thermobaric effect and geothermal heating, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 581–594, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2004.11.2005, 2005.; Adkins, J. F., McIntyre, K., and Schrag, D. P.: The Salinity, Temperature...

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The Oceanflux Greenhouse Gases Methodology for Deriving a Sea Surf...

By: J. D. Shutler; D. K. Woolf; P. E. Land; L. M. Goddijn-murphy; C. Donlon

Description: ERI, University of the Highlands and Islands, Ormlie Road, Thurso, UK. Climatologies, or long-term averages, of essential climate variables are useful for evaluating models and providing a baseline for studying anomalies. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) has made millions of global underway sea surface measurements of CO2 publicly available, all in a uniform format and presented as fugacity, fCO2. As ...

Bakker, D. C. E., Pfeil, B., Smith, K., Hankin, S., Olsen, A., Alin, S. R., Cosca, C., Harasawa, S., Kozyr, A., Nojiri, Y., O'Brien, K. M., Schuster, U., Telszewski, M., Tilbrook, B., Wada, C., Akl, J., Barbero, L., Bates, N. R., Boutin, J., Bozec, Y., Cai, W.-J., Castle, R. D., Chavez, F. P., Chen, L., Chierici, M., Currie, K., de Baar, H. J. W., Evans, W., Feely, R. A., Fransson, A., Gao, Z., Hales, B., Hardman-Mountford, N. J., Hoppema, M., Huang, W.-J., Hunt, C. W., ...

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Corrigendum to Observed and Simulated Estimates of the Meridional ...

By: P. Heimbach; H. Haak; S. Cunningham; J. Marotzke; T. Kanzow; J. Baehr

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. No abstract available.

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Is Coccolithophore Distribution in the Mediterranean Sea Related t...

By: T. Tanhua; P. Ziveri; M. Álvarez; A. Oviedo

Description: Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Spain. The Mediterranean Sea is considered a hot spot for climate change, being characterized by oligotrophic to ultra-oligotrophic waters and rapidly increasing seasurface temperature and changing carbonate chemistry. Coccolithophores are considered a dominant phytoplankton group in these waters. As marine calcifying organisms they are ex...

Álvarez, M., Sanleón-Bartolomé, H., Tanhua, T., Mintrop, L., Luchetta, A., Cantoni, C., Schroeder, K., and Civitarese, G.: The CO2 system in the Mediterranean Sea: a basin wide perspective, Ocean Sci., 10, 69–92, doi:10.5194/os-10-69-2014, 2014.; Bach, L. T., Mackinder, L. C., Schulz, K. G., Wheeler, G., Schroeder, D. C., Brownlee, C. and Riebesell, U.: Dissecting the impact of CO2 and pH on the me...

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Observing the Mediterranean Sea from Space: 21 Years of Pathfinder...

By: M. Guarracino; B. Buongiorno Nardelli; R. Santoleri; S. Marullo

Description: ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Italia. The time series of satellite infrared AVHRR data from 1985 to 2005 has been used to produce a daily series of optimally interpolated SST maps over the regular grid of the operational MFSTEP OGCM model of the Mediterranean basin. A complete validation of this OISST (Optimally Interpolated Sea Surface Temperature) product with in situ measurements has been performed in order to e...

Bretherton, F. P., Davis, R. E., and Fandry, C. B.: A technique for objective analysis and design of oceanographic experiments applied to MODE-73, Deep Sea Res., 23, 559–582, 1976.; Buongiorno Nardelli, B., Larnicol, G., D'Acunzo, E., Santoleri, R., Marullo, S., and Le Traon, P. Y.: Near Real Time SLA and SST products during 2-years of MFS pilot project: processing, analysis of the variability and of the coupled patterns, Ann. Geophys., 20, 1–19, 2002.; Donlon, C. J., Mi...

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Reconstructing Bottom Water Temperatures from Measurements of Temp...

By: C. Müller; A. Lechleiter; F. Miesner

Description: Zentrum für Technomathematik, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. Continuous monitoring of oceanic bottom water temperatures is a complicated task, even in relatively easy-to-access basins like the North or Baltic seas. Here, a method to determine annual bottom water temperature variations from inverse modeling of instantaneous measurements of temperatures and sediment thermal properties is presented. This concept is similar to climate reconstruction...

Chouinard, C., Fortier, R., and Mareschal, J.-C.: Recent climate variations in the Subarctic inferred from three borehole temperature profiles in Northern Quebec, Canada, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 263, 355–369, 2007.; Clauser, C.: Geothermal energy, in: Landolt-Börnstein, Group VIII: Advanced Materials and Technologies, vol. 1: Energy Technologies, Subvol. C: Renewable Energies, edited by: Heinloth, K., Springer Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin, 493–604, 2006.; Davis, E. E., Wan...

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Daily Oceanographic Analyses by the Mediterranean Basin Scale Assi...

By: N. Pinardi; M. Adani; M. Tonani; A. Bonazzi; V. Fernandez; C. Fratianni; S. Dobricic

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna, Italy. This study presents the upgrade of the Optimal Interpolation scheme used in the basin scale assimilation scheme of the Mediterranean Forecasting System. The modifications include a daily analysis cycle, the assimilation of ARGO float profiles, the implementation of the geostrophic balance in the background error covariance matrix and the initialisation of the analyses. A series of numerical...

Le Traon, P. Y., Nadal, F., and Ducet, N.: An improved mapping method of multisatellite altimeter data, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 15, 522–533, 2003.; Buongiorno Nardelli, B., Larnicol, G., D'Acunzo, E., Santoleri, R., Marullo, S., and Le Traon, P. Y.: Near Real Time SLA and SST products during 2-years of MFS pilot project: processing, analysis of the variability and of the coupled patterns, Ann. Geophys., 21, 103–121, 2003.; Castellari, S., Pinardi, N., and Leaman, K. D...

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Effects of Mesoscale Eddies on Global Ocean Distributions of Cfc-1...

By: J.-c. Dutay; J. C. Orr; P. Delecluse; Z. Lachkar

Description: LSCE/IPSL, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Global-scale tracer simulations are typically made at coarse resolution without explicitly modelling eddies. Here we ask what role do eddies play in ocean uptake, storage, and meridional transport of transient tracers. We made global anthropogenic transient-tracer simulations in coarse-resolution (2°cosΦ×2°, ORCA2) and eddy-permitting (½°cosΦ×½°, O...

Andrews, D. and McIntyre, M.: Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: The generalized Eliassen-Palm relation and the mean zonal acceleration, J. Atmos. Sci., 33, 2031–2048, 1976.; Arakawa, A.: Design of the UCLA general circulation model, numerical simulation of weather and climate, Tech. Rep 7, University of California, Dept. of Meteorology, 1972.; Berliand, M E. and Strokina, T.: Global distribution of the total amount of clouds (in Russian), Hydrometeorologi...

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Coastal Sea Level Response to the Tropical Cyclonic Forcing in the...

By: Y. Agarvadekar; M. Soumya; P. Vethamony; S. Lobo; K. Vijaykumar; P. Mehra; R. Luis; K. Jyoti; T. M. Balakrishnan Nair; B. Harmalkar; K. Sudheesh

Description: CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India. The study examines the observed storm-generated sea level variation due to deep depression (event 1: E1) in the Arabian Sea from 26 November to 1 December 2011 and a cyclonic storm THANE (event 2: E2) over the Bay of Bengal during 25–31 December 2011. The sea level and surface meteorological measurements collected during these extreme events exhibit strong synoptic disturbances leading to storm ...

Antony, C. and Unnikrishnan, A. S.: Observed characteristics of tide-surge interaction along the east coast of India and the head of Bay of Bengal, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 131, 6–11, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2013.08.004, 2013.; Bell, C., Vassie, J. M., and Woodworth, P. L.: Tidal Analysis Software Kit 2000 (Task 2000), POL/PSMSL Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level, Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, UK, 2000.; Das, P. ...

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Agulhas Ring Injection Into the South Atlantic During Glacials and...

By: V. Zharkov; D. Nof

Description: Geophysical Fluid Dynamics institute, Florida State University, FL, USA. Recent proxies analysis suggest that, at the end of the last glacial, there was a significant increase in the injection of Agulhas rings into the South Atlantic (SA). This brought about a dramatic increase in the salt-influx (from the Indian Ocean) into the SA helping re-start the then-collapsed meridional overturning cell (MOC), leading to the termination of the Younger Dryas (YD)....

Andrews, J. C. and Scully-Power, P.: The structure of an East Australian Current anticyclonic eddy, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 6, 756–765, 1976.; Arruda, W. Z., Nof,D., and O'Brien, J. J.: Does the Ulleung eddy owe its existence to β and nonlinearities?, Deep-Sea Res., 51, 2073–2090, 2004.; Bard, E.: Climate shock: abrupt changes over millennial time scales, Phys. Today, 55, 32–38, 2002.; Berger, W. H. and Wefer, G.: Expeditions into the past: paleoceanographic studies in the S...

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A Nested Circulation Model for the North Aegean Sea : Volume 3, Is...

By: K. P. Tsiaras; V. H. Kourafalou

Description: Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Anavyssos, Greece. A multi-nested approach has been employed for numerical simulations in the northern part of the Aegean Sea in the framework of the MFSTEP (Mediterranean Forecast System: Toward Environmental Predictions) project. The high resolution (~1.6 km) hydrodynamic model of the North Aegean Sea (NAS) has been nested within a coarser model of the Eastern Mediterranean (resolution ~3.6 km) which is also nested...

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Mesoscale Variability in the Arabian Sea from Hycom Model Results ...

By: R. Baraille; R. Duarte; X. Carton; C. Vic; D. Ciani; S. Corréard; P. L'Hégaret

Description: LPO, UBO/UEB and IFREMER, Brest, France. The Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman circulation and water masses, subject to the monsoon forcing, reveal a strong seasonal variability and intense mesoscale features. We describe and analyse this variability and these features, using both meteorological data (from ECMWF reanalyses), in-situ observations (from the ARGO float program and the GDEM climatology), satellite altimetry (from AVISO) and a regio...

Bower, A. S., Hunt, H. D., and Price, J. F.: Character and dynamics of the red Sea and the Persian Gulf outflows, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 105, 6387–6414, 2000.; Carnes, M. R.: Description and Evaluation of GDEM-V 3.0, Naval Research Laboratory, Oceanography Division, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529-5004, 2009.; Carton, X., L'Hegaret, P., and Baraille, R.: Mesoscale variability of water masses in the Arabian Sea as revealed by ARGO floats, Ocean Sci., 8, 227–248,

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Tropical Extra-tropical Thermocline Water Mass Exchanges in the Co...

By: A. Lazar; A. Solomon; I. Wainer

Description: Department of Physical Oceanography, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The NCAR CCSM numerical coupled model is used to understand the tropical-extra-tropical pathways of thermocline waters in the Atlantic Ocean. Climatological annual mean simulation results from three numerical experiments are analyzed. Two are fully coupled runs with different spatial resolution (T42 and T85) for the atmospheric component. The third numerical experiment is a...

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An Empirical Stochastic Model of Sea-surface Temperatures and Surf...

By: I. Kamenkovich; S. Kravtsov; M. Ghil; D. Kondrashov

Description: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Atmospheric Science group, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201, USA. This study employs NASA's recent satellite measurements of sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea-level winds (SLWs) with missing data filled-in by Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), to construct empirical models that capture both intrinsic and SST-dependent aspects of SLW variability. The model construction methodology us...

Abdi, H.: Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression, In: Encyclopedia of Social Sciences Research Methods, edited by: Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A., and Futing, T., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2003.; Arya, S. P.: Introduction to Micrometeorology, Academic Press, New York, 307 pp, 1988.; Bretherton, C. S. and Battisti, D. S.: An interpretation of the results from atmospheric general circulation models forced by the time history of the observed sea surface temperature distribution,...

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