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A Multi-decadal Meridional Displacement of the Subpolar Front in t...

By: J. H. Jungclaus; M. Bersch; H. Haak; I. Núñez-riboni; K. Lohmann

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Bundesstr. 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. Observations since the 1950s show a multi-decadal cycle of a meridional displacement of the Subpolar Front (SPF) in the Newfoundland Basin (NFB) in the North Atlantic. The SPF displacement is associated with corresponding variations in the path of the North Atlantic Current. We use the ocean general circulation model MPIOM with enhanced horizontal and vertical resolutions and f...

Bacon, S.: Circulation and Fluxes in the North Atlantic between Greenland and Ireland, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 27, 1420–1435, 1997.; Belkin, I. M., Levitus, S., Antonov, J., and Malmberg, S.-A.: Great Salinity Anomalies in the North Atlantic, Prog. Oceanogr., 41, 1–68, 1998.; Bersch, M.: On the circulation of the northeastern North Atlantic, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 42, 9, 1583–1607, 1995.; Bersch, M.: North Atlantic Oscillation–induced changes of the upper layer circulation in ...

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Imbalance of Energy and Momentum Source Terms of the Sea Wave Tran...

By: G. V. Caudal

Description: Université Versailles-St-Quentin; CNRS/INSU, UMR8190, Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales – LATMOS-IPSL 11 Boulevard d'Alembert, 78280 Guyancourt, France. In the concept of full development, the sea wave spectrum is regarded as a nearly stationary solution of the wave transfer equation, where source and sink terms should be in balance with respect to both energy and momentum. Using a two-dimensional empirical sea wave spectral model a...

Banner, M. L., Gemmrich, J. R., and Farmer, D. M.: Multiscale measurements of ocean wave breaking probability, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 32, 3364–3375, 2002.; Banner, M. L., Jones, I. S. F., and Trinder, J. C.: Wavenumber spectra of short gravity waves, J. Fluid Mech., 198, 321–344, 1989.; Alber, I. E.: The effect of randomness on the stability of two-dimensional surface wavetrains, P. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, 363, 525–546, 1978.; Banner, M.: Equilibrium spectra of wind waves, ...

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Water Level Oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor : Volume 11, I...

By: R. Heitsenrether; W. Sweet; J. Park

Description: NOAA, 1305 East West Hwy, Silver Spring, MD, USA. Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz) water level data in Monterey California identifies Harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed with specific geographic features. It found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cross-modal i...

AMS: Seiches in Lake Garda, Mon. Weather Rev., 31, 532–533, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1903)31[532b:SILG]2.0.CO;2, 1903.; Bloomfield, P.: Fourier Analysis of Time Series: An Introduction, Wiley, New York, 1st Edn., 1976.; AMS: The seiche and its mechanical explanation, Mon. Weather Rev., 34, 226, doi:2.0.CO;2>10.1175/1520-0493(1906)34<226b...

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On the Numerical Resolution of the Bottom Layer in Simulations of ...

By: J. Verron; B. Barnier; N. Laanaia; A. Wirth; J. M. Molines

Description: LEGI/MEOM/CNRS-INSU, UMR 5519, Grenoble, France. The role of an increased numerical vertical resolution, leading to an explicit resolution of the bottom Ekman layer dynamics, is investigated. Using the hydrostatic ocean model NEMO-OPA9, we demonstrate that the dynamics of an idealised gravity current (on an inclined plane), is well captured when a few (around five) sigma-coordinate levels are added near the ocean floor. Such resolution allows to consid...

Coleman, G. N., Ferziger, J. H., and Spalart, P. R.: A numerical study of the turbulent Ekman layer, J. Fluid. Mech., 213, 313–348, 1990.; Ezer, T. and Weatherly, G. L.: A numerical study of the interaction between a deep cold jet and the bottom boundary layer of the ocean?, J. Phys Oceanogr, 20, 801–816, 1990.; Griffiths, R. W.: Gravity currents in rotating systems, Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech, 18, 59–89, 1986.; Jungclaus, J. H.: A three-dimensional simulation of the formation...

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Sea Surface Height and Mixed Layer Depth Responses to Sea Surface ...

By: J. Wu; H. Mao; H. Kawamura; C. Qiu

Description: Center for Coastal Ocean Science and Technology, School of Marine Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China. Qiu et al. (2014) quantitatively examined the mechanisms of sea surface temperature front disappearance, finding that the formation of shallow mixed layer depth (MLD) is very important. In the present study, we further investigated variations of the sea level anomaly (SLA) and mixed layer depth (MLD) during the SST front weakening p...

Gill, A. E.: Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics, 342–346, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1982.; de Boyer Montegut, C., Madec, G., Fischer, A. S., Lazar, A., and Iudicone, D.: Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C12003, doi:10.1029/2004JC002378, 2014.; Ducet, N., Le Traon P. Y., and Reverdin, G.: Global high resolution mapping of ocean ...

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Increasing Transports of Volume, Heat, and Salt Towards the Arctic...

By: S. Østerhus; R. Kristiansen; H. Hátún; K. M. H. Larsen; B. Hansen; E. Mortensen

Description: Faroe Marine Research Institute, Tórshavn, Faroe Islands. The flow of warm and saline water from the Atlantic Ocean, across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge, into the Nordic Seas – the Atlantic inflow – is split into three separate branches. The most intensive of these branches is the inflow between Iceland and the Faroe Islands (Faroes), which is focused into the Faroe Current, north of the Faroes. The Atlantic inflow is an integral part of the North ...

Østerhus, S., Turrell, W. R., Jónsson, S., and Hansen, B.: Measured volume, heat, and salt fluxes from the Atlantic to the Arctic Mediterranean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L07603, doi:10.1029/2004GL022188, 2005.; Prandle, D., Ballard, G., Flatt, D., Harrison, A. J., Jones, S. E., Knight, P. J., Loch, S., McManus, J., Player, R., and Tappin, A.: Combining modelling and monitoring to determine fluxes of water, dissolved and ...

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Phytoplankton Distribution and Nitrogen Dynamics in the Southwest ...

By: S. J. Thomalla; I. J. Ansorge; M. I. Lucas; E. Pakhomov; H. N. Waldron; J. F. Read

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701, South Africa. During the 1999 Marion Island Oceanographic Survey (MIOS 4) in late austral summer, a northbound and reciprocal southbound transect were taken along the Southwest Indian and Madagascar Ridge, between the Prince Edward Islands and 31° S. The sections crossed a number of major fronts and smaller mesoscale features and covered a wide productivity spec...

Atkinson, A., Whitehouse, M. J., Priddle, J., Cripps, G. C., Ward, P., and Brandon, M. A.: South Georgia, Antarctica: a productive, cold water, pelagic ecosystem, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 216, 279–308, 2001.; Barange, M., Pakhomov, E. A., Perissinotto, R., Froneman, P. W., Verheye, H. M., Taunton-Clark, J., and Lucas, M. I.: Pelagic community structure of the subtropical convergence region south of Africa and in the mid-Atlantic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 45, 1663–1687, 1998.; ...

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Impact of the Indonesian Throughflow on Agulhas Leakage : Volume 1...

By: W. P. M. De Ruijter; H. A. Dijkstra; D. Le Bars

Description: IMAU, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.005, 3508 TA Utrecht, The Netherlands. Using ocean models of different complexity we show that opening the Indonesian Passage between the Pacific and the Indian Ocean increases the input of Indian Ocean water into the South Atlantic via the Agulhas leakage. In a strongly eddying global ocean model this response results from an increased Agulhas Current transport and a constant proportion of Agulhas re...

Backeberg, B. C., Bertino, L., and Johannessen, J. A.: Evaluating two numerical advection schemes in HYCOM for eddy-resolving modelling of the Agulhas Current, Ocean Sci., 5, 173–190, doi:10.5194/os-5-173-2009, 2009.; Beal, L. M., De Ruijter, W. P. M., Biastoch, A., and Zahn, R.: On the role of the Agulhas system in ocean circulation and climate, Nature, 472, 429–436, 2011.; Biastoch, A., Böning, C. W., and Lutjeharms, ...

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First Laboratory Study of Air–sea Gas Exchange at Hurricane Wind S...

By: B. Jähne; K. E. Krall

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. In a pilot study conducted in October and November 2011, air–sea gas transfer velocities of the two sparingly soluble trace gases hexafluorobenzene and 1,4-difluorobenzene were measured in the unique high-speed wind-wave tank at Kyoto University, Japan. This air–sea interaction facility is capable of producing hurricane strength wind speeds ...

McNeil, C. and D'Asaro, E.: Parameterization of air sea gas fluxes at extreme wind speeds, J. Marine Syst., 66, 110–121, 2007.; Memery, L. and Merlivat, L.: Modelling of gas flux through bubbles at the air-water interface, Tellus B, 37, 272–285, 1985.; Ambrose, D., Ewing, M. B., Ghiassee, N. B., and Sanchez Ochoa, J. C.: The ebulliometric method of vapour pressure measurement: vapour pressures of benzene, hexafluorobenzene, and naphthalene, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 22, 589–6...

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Seasonal Variability of Phytoplankton Fluorescence in Relation to ...

By: E. Crisafi; F. Raffa; F. Decembrini; F. Azzaro

Description: Institute for Coastal Marine Environment, CNR, Sp. S. Raineri, 86, 98122 Messina, Italy. In the Straits of Messina the large gradients of tidal displacements as well as the topographic constrictions determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability of surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescence were ...

Androsov, A. A., Kagan, B. A., Romanenkov, D. A., and Voltzinger, N. E.: Numerical modelling of barotropic tidal dynamics in the Straits of Messina, Advances in Water Resources, 25, 401–415, 2002.; Azzaro, F., Decembrini, F., and Crisafi, E.: Sequenza temporale delle condizioni termo-aline e distribuzione della biomassa fotoautotrofa nello Stretto di Messina. Biol. Mar. Medit., 7(1), 541–548, 2000.; Azzaro, F., Cavalli, R. M., Decembrini, F., Pignatti, S., and Santella, ...

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Halocline Water Modification and Along-slope Advection at the Lapt...

By: J. McKay; S. Torres-valdes; A. Novikhin; I. Polyakov; D. Bauch; A. Mix; I. Dmitrenko

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Wischhofstr. 1–3, 24148 Kiel, Germany. A general pattern in water mass distribution and potential shelf–basin exchange is revealed at the Laptev Sea continental slope based on hydrochemical and stable oxygen isotope data from the summers 2005–2009. Despite considerable interannual variations, a frontal system can be inferred between shelf, continental slope and central Eurasian Basin waters in the upper 1...

Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. and Carmack, E.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 28, 529–545, 1981.; Abrahamsen, E. P., Meredith, M. P., Falkner, K. K., Torres-Valdes, S., Leng, M. J., Alkire, M. B., Bacon, S., Laxon, S., Polyakov, I., Ivanov, V., and Kirillov, S.: Tracer-derived freshwater budget of the Siberian Continental Shelf following the extreme Arctic summer of 2007, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L07602, do...

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Structure of Phytoplankton (Continuous Plankton Recorder and Seawi...

By: R. D. Pingree; S. C. Leterme

Description: Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, UK. All marine organisms are affected to some extent by the movement and thermal properties of oceanic currents. However phytoplankton, because of its small size is most directly coupled to the physical environment. The intense hydrodynamic activity observed in the Northwest Atlantic Shelves Province makes this region especially intriguing from the point of view of p...

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Coastal Sea Level Response to the Tropical Cyclonic Forcing in the...

By: K. Vijaykumar; Y. Agarvadekar; T. M. Balakrishnan Nair; K. Jyoti; S. Mohan; B. Harmalkar; P. Mehra; K. Sudheesh; P. Vethamony; R. Luis; S. Lobo

Description: CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India. The study examines the observed storm-generated sea-level variation due to deep depression (Event-E1) in the Arabian Sea from 26 November–1 December 2011 and a cyclonic storm THANE (Event-E2) over the Bay of Bengal during 25–31 December 2011. The sea-level and surface meteorological measurements collected during these extreme events exhibit strong synoptic disturbances leading to storm surge up ...

Bhattacharya, T. and Guleria, S.: Coastal flood management in rural planning unit through land-use planning: Kaikhali, West Bengal, India, J. Coast. Conserv., 16, 77–87, doi:10.1007/s11852-011-0176-x, 2012.; Chittibabu, P., Dube, S. K., Rao, A. D., Sinha, P. C., and Murty, T. S.: Numerical Simulation of extreme sea levels using location specific high resolution model for Gujarat coast of India, Marine Geodesy, 23, 1...

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Absolute Salinity, Density Salinity and the Reference-composition ...

By: T. J. McDougall; R. Pawlowicz; D. G. Wright; G. M. Marion; R. Feistel

Description: Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2, Canada. Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy...

Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO Standard Seawater: definition of the uncertainty in the calibration procedure, and stability of recent batches, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 24, 1785–1799, 2007.; Brewer, P. G. and Bradshaw, A.: The effect of non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. Mar. Res., 33, 157–175, 1975.; Chen, C.-T. A.: Shelf-vs. dissolution-generated alkalinity above the chemical lysocline, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 5365–53...

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Recirculation in the Fram Strait and Transports of Water in and No...

By: M.-n. Houssais; A. Beszczynska-möller; B. Rudels; P. B. Eriksson; M. Marnela

Description: Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland. The volume, heat and freshwater transports in the Fram Strait are estimated from geostrophic computations based on summer hydrographic data from 1984, 1997, 2002 and 2004. In these years, in addition to the usually sampled section along 79° N, a section between Greenland and Svalbard was sampled further north. Quasi-closed boxes bounded by the two sections and Greenland and Svalbard can then be formed...

Aagaard, K. and Carmack, E. C.: The role of sea ice and other fresh water in the Arctic circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 14485–14498, 1989.; Aagaard, K. and Greisman, P.: Toward new mass and heat budgets for the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 3821–3827, 1975.; Aagaard, K., Darnall, C. and Greisman, P.: Year-long current measurements in the Greenland-Spitsbergen Passage, Deep Sea Res., 20, 743–746, 1973.; Bourke, R. H., Tunnicliffe, M. D., Newton, J. L., Paquette, ...

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Effect of Variable Winds on Current Structure and Reynolds Stresse...

By: F. G. Schmitt; A. V. Sentchev; K. A. Korotenko

Description: Laboratoire d'Océanologie et de Géosciences, UMR8187, CNRS, Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, Wimereux, France. Wind and wave effects on tidal current structure and turbulence throughout the water column are examined using an upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The instrument has been deployed on the seafloor of 18-m mean depth, off the north-eastern French coast in the eastern English Channel, over 12 tidal cycles, and covered th...

Ardhuin, F., Roland, A., Dumas, F., Bennis, A.-C., Sentchev, A., Forget, P., Wolf, J., Girard, F., Osuna, P., and Benoit, M.: Numerical Wave Modeling in Conditions with Strong Currents: Dissipation, Refraction, and Relative Wind, J. Phys. Ocean., 10.1175/JPO-D-11-0220.1, accepted, 2012,; Brylinski, J. M., Dupont, J. P., and Bentley, D.: Conditions hydrologiques au large du cap Griz-Nez (France); premiers resultats, Oc...

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Physical Response of the Coastal Ocean to Hurricane Isabel Near La...

By: F. M. Bingham

Description: Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina Wilmington, 5600 Marvin K. Moss Lane, Wilmington, NC 28409, USA. Hurricane Isabel made landfall near Drum Inlet, North Carolina on 18 September 2003. In nearby Onslow Bay an array of 5 moorings captured the response of the coastal ocean to the passage of the storm by measuring currents, surface waves, bottom pressure, temperature and salinity. Temperatures across the continental shelf decreased by 1...

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Salinity-induced Mixed and Barrier Layers in the Southwestern Trop...

By: M. Silva; J. Servain; D. Veleda; C. A. D. Lentini; C. Limongi; M. Araujo; F. S. Leite

Description: Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife-PE, Brazil. High-resolution hydrographic observations of temperature and salinity are used to analyze the formation and distribution of isothermal depth (ZT), mixed depth (ZM) and barrier layer thickness (BLT) in a section of the southwestern Atlantic (0°30´ N–14°00´ S; 31°24´–41°48´ W), adjacent to the northeastern Brazilian coast. Analyzed data...

Cronin, M. F. and McPhaden, M. J.: Barrier layer formation during westerly wind bursts, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 2101–2112, 2002.; De Boyer Montégut, C., Madec, G., Fischer, A. S., Lazar, A., and Iudicone, D.: Mixed layer depth over the global ocean: An examination of profile data and a profile-based climatology, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C12003, doi:10.1029/2004JC002378, 2004.; De Boyer Montégut, C. B., Mignot, J., Lazar, A., and Cravatte, S.: Control of salinity on the...

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Influence of the Kuroshio on the Water Properties in the Shelf : V...

By: S. Yanao; J.-s. Lee; T. Matsuno

Description: Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka, Japan. The Kuroshio flows along the edges of the marginal East Asian seas such as the South China Sea (SCS) and East China Sea (ECS). Exchanges of materials and energy between the Kuroshio and the marginal seas partly control the environments of the marginal seas. In particular, saline water from the Kuroshio maintains certain salinity in the shelf water in the ECS. Nutrients ...

Bai, L. and Zhang, J.: Shelf water mass origins and nutrient flux estimation in the East China Sea using low-volume seawater measurement with rare earth element, Adv. Geosci., submitted, 2008.; Chang, P.-H. and Isobe, A.: A numerical study on the Changjiang Diluted Water in the East and Yellow China Seas, J. Geophys. Res., 108(C9), 3299, doi:10.1029/2002JC001749, 2003.; Chen, C. T. A. and Wang, S. L.: Carbon, alkalinity and nutrient budgets on the East China Sea continen...

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Modeling the Nd Isotopic Composition in the North Atlantic Basin U...

By: S. Peronne; C. Jeandel; A. M. Treguier; J.-c. Dutay; F. Lacan; T. Arsouze

Description: Laboratoire Physique des Océans (LPO), IFREMER/CNRS/UBO/IRD, UMR6269, Plouzané, France. Boundary Exchange (BE – exchange of elements between continental margins and the open ocean) has recently been emphasized as a key process in the oceanic cycle of neodymium (Nd). We here use a regional eddy-permitting resolution Ocean General Circulation Model (1/4°) of the North Atlantic basin to simulate the distribution of the Nd isotopic composition, considering B...

Albarede, F., Goldstein, S. L., and Dautel, D.: The neodymium isotopic composition in Mn nodules from the Southern and Indian Oceans, the global oceanic neodymium budget and their bearing on deep ocean circulation, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 61(6), 1277–1291, 1997.; Arsouze, T., Dutay, J.-C., Lacan, F., and Jeandel, C.: Modeling the neodymium isotopic composition with a global ocean circulation model, Chem. Geol., 239, 165–177, 2007.; Arsouze, T., Dutay, J.-C., Lacan, F., ...

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