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Assessment of a Physical-biogeochemical Coupled Model System for O...

By: L. Jonasson; J. She; M. Maar; Z. Wan; J. Baasch-larsen

Description: Centre for Ocean and Ice, Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvej 100, Copenhagen, Denmark. Thanks to the abundant observation data, we are able to deploy the traditional point-to-point comparison and statistical measures in combination with a comprehensive model validation scheme to assess the skills of the biogeochemical model ERGOM in providing an operational service for the Baltic Sea. The model assessment concludes that the operational products ...

Allen, J. I., Holt, T. J., Blackford, J., and Proctor, R.: Error quantification of a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem coastal-ocean model: Part 2. Chlorophyll-a, nutrients and SPM, J. Marine Syst., 68, 381–404, 2007.; Almroth, E. and Skogen, M. D.: A North Sea and Baltic Sea model ensemble eutrophication assessment, Ambio, 39, 59–69, 2010.; Berg, P. and Poulsen, J. W.: Implementation details for HBM, DMI Technical Report No. 12–11, ISSN: 1399-1388, Copenhag...

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Computation of a New Mean Dynamic Topography for the Mediterranean...

By: M. Menna; J. Tintoré; M.-h. Rio; B. Barceló; P.-m. Poulain; A. Pascual

Description: CLS Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville-Ste Agne, France. The accurate knowledge of the ocean Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) is a crucial issue for a number of oceanographic applications and in some areas of the Mediterranean Sea, important limitations have been found pointing to the need of an upgrade. We present a new Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) that was computed for the Mediterranean Sea. It takes profit of improvements made possible by the...

Adani, M., Srdjan, D., and Pinardi, N.: Quality assessment of a 1985–2007 Mediterranean Sea reanalysis, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 28, 569–589, 2011.; Alemany, F., Quintanilla, L., Velez-Belchí, P., García, A., Cortés, D., Rodríguez, J. M., Fernández de Puelles, M. L., González-Pola, C., and López-Jurado, J. L.: Characterization of the spawning habitat of Atlantic bluefin tuna and related species in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean), Prog. Oceanogr., 86, 21–38, 2010....

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M3A System (2000–2005) – Operation and Maintenance : Volume 3, Iss...

By: V. Zervakis; G. Petihakis; C. Christodoulou; C. Nittis; P. Drakopoulos; C. Tziavos

Description: Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, P.O. BOX 2214, 71003 Iraklion, Crete, Greece. During the Pilot Phase of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFSPP) (1998–2001) a prototype observing system (Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array – M3A) was designed, developed and operated in the Cretan Sea for continuous oceanographic measurements in real time. The main problems encountered were associated with biofouling, underwater and...

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Scale Oriented Embedded Modeling of the North-western Mediterranea...

By: P. Marsaleix; C. Estournel; M. Lux; F. Auclair; C. Nguyen

Description: Pôle d'Océanographie Côtière de Toulouse – Laboratoire d'Aérologie, Toulouse, France. An embedded forecasting system was developed for the North-Western Mediterranean including a regional model and a coastal model of the Gulf of Lion. The system is based on the Symphonie hydrodynamic free surface model and on the variational initialization and forcing platform VIFOP. It was shown that a pre-modeling period of 7 days before beginning the forecast allows ...

Auclair, F., Casitas, S., and Marsaleix, P.: Application of an inverse method to coastal modelling, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 17, 1368–1391, 2000b.; Adcroft, A., Hill, C., and Marshall, J.: Representation of Topography by Shaved Cells in a Height Coordinate Ocean Model, Monthly Weather Rev., 125, 9, 2293–2315, 1997.; Auclair, F., Marsaleix, P., and Estournel, C.: Sigma coordinate pressure gradient errors : evaluation and reduction by an inverse method, J. Atmos. Oceani...

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Snapshot Observation of Physical Structure and Stratification in D...

By: J. Azizpour; H. A. Lahijani; P. Ghaffari

Description: Department of Physical Oceanography, Iranian National Center for Oceanography, No. 3, Western Fatemi, 1411813389, Tehran, Iran. In this article, we describe physical parameters structures and different water masses using CTD measurements in southwestern part of the Caspian Sea (CS) in adjacent to Anzali Port (AP). CTD profilings were conducted along a transect perpendicular to the coastline over 13 stations from the coast down to 720 m in winter 2008. Ac...

Bruevich, S. V.: Hydrochemistry of Middle and South Caspian Sea, USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 1973.; Emery, W. J., Tally, L. D., and Pickard, G. L.: Descriptive Physical Oceanography, Elsevier Science & Technology Books, 2006.; Emery, W. J. and Thomson, R. E.: Data Analysis Methods in Physical Oceanography, Elsevier Science B. V, Amsterdam, 2004.; Froehlich, K., Rozanski, K., Povinec, P., Oregioni, B., and Gastaud, J.: Isotope studies in the Caspian Sea, Sci. Total ...

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Meris-based Ocean Colour Classification with the Discrete Forel–ul...

By: H. J. Van Der Woerd; A. Hommersom; M. R. Wernand

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Physical Oceanography, Marine Optics & Remote Sensing, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands. Multispectral information from satellite borne ocean colour sensors is at present used to characterize natural waters via the retrieval of concentration of the three dominant optical constituents; pigments of phytoplankton, non-algal particles and coloured dissolved organic matter. A limitation of...

Chen, C.-T. A.: The Three Gorges dam: reducing the upwelling and thus productivity in the East China Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 381–383, 2000.; Antoine, D., Morel, A., Gordon, H. R., Banzon, V. F., and Evans, R. H.: Bridging ocean colour observations of the 1980s and 2000s in search of long-term trends, J. Geophys. Res. 110, 22 pp, C06009, doi:10.1029/2004JC002620, 2005.; Behrenfeld, M. J., O'Malley, R. T., Siegel, D. A., McClain, C. R., Sarmiento, J. L., Feldman, G. ...

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Toward a Multivariate Reanalysis of the North Atlantic Ocean Bioge...

By: J.-m. Brankart; P. Brasseur; C. Fontana

Description: CNRS, Laboratoire des Ecoulements Géophysiques et Industriels, UMR 5519, Grenoble, France. Today, the routine assimilation of satellite data into operational models of the ocean circulation is mature enough to enable the production of global reanalyses describing the ocean circulation variability during the past decades. The expansion of the reanalysis concept from ocean physics to biogeochemistry is a timely challenge that motivates the present study. T...

Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., Le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Boning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and De Cuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy-permitting resolution, Ocean Dynam., 56, 543–567, doi:10.1007/s10236-...

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On the Assimilation of Ice Velocity and Concentration Data Into La...

By: T. Fichefet; V. Dulière

Description: Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut d'Astronomie et de Géophysique Georges LemaÎtre, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Data assimilation into sea ice models designed for climate studies has started about 15 years ago. In most of the studies conducted so far, it is assumed that the improvement brought by the assimilation is straightforward. However, some studies suggest this might not be true. In order to elucidate this question and to find an appropriate...

Cavalieri, D., Parkinson, C., and Vinnikov, K.: 30-Year satellite record reveals contrasting Arctic and Antarctic decadal sea ice variability, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 18, doi:10.1029/2003GL018031, 2003.; Comiso, J.: A rapidly declining perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 1956, doi:10.1029/2002GL015650, 2002.; Comiso, J. and Steffen, J.: Studies of Antarctic sea ice concentrations from satellite data and their applications, J. Geophys. Res., 1...

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Atlantic Transport Variability at 25° N in Six Hydrographic Sectio...

By: H. L. Bryden; S. A. Cunningham; B. A. King; C. P. Atkinson

Description: National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH, UK. In January and February 2010, a sixth transatlantic hydrographic section was completed across 25° N, extending the hydrographic record at this latitude to over half a century. In combination with continuous transport measurements made since 2004 at 26.5° N by the Rapid-WATCH project, we reassess transport variability in the 25° N hydrographic record. Past studies of transport variabi...

Atkinson, C. P.: Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26° N, Ph.D. thesis, School of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK, 293 pp., 2011.; Bacon, S.: Decadal variability in the outflow from the Nordic seas to the deep Atlantic Ocean, Nature, 394, 871–874, 1998.; Atkinson, C. P., Bryden, H. L., Hirschi, J. J-M., and Kanzow, T.: On the seasonal cycles and variability of Florida Straits, Ekman and Sverdrup transpor...

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137Cs Off Fukushima Dai-ichi, Japan – Model Based Estimates of Dil...

By: I. Kriest; H. Dietze

Description: IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. In the aftermath of an earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 radioactive 137Cs was discharged from a damaged nuclear power plant to the sea off Fukushima Dai-ichi, Japan. Here we explore its dilution and fate with a state-of-the-art global ocean general circulation model, which is eddy-resolving in the region of interest. We find apparent consistenc...

Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., Garcia, H. E., and Levitus, S.: World Ocean Atlas 2005, Volume 2: Salinity. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 182 pp., 2006.; Bailly du Bois, P., Laguionie, P., Boust, D., Korsakissok, I., Didier, D., and Fiévet, B.: Estimation of marine source-term following Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity,

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Influence of Winds on Temporally Varying Short and Long Period Gra...

By: T. N. Balakrishnan Nair; J. Singh; V. Sanil Kumar; J. Glejin

Description: Ocean Engineering, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research), Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India. Wave data collected off Ratnagiri, west coast of India during 1 May 2010 to 30 April 2012 is used in the study. Seasonal and annual variation in wave data controlled by the local wind system such as sea breeze and land breeze, and remote wind generated long period waves observed along the west coast of India, is studie...

Aboobacker, V. M., Vethamony P., and Rashmi R.: Shamal swells in the Arabian Sea and their influence along the west coast of India, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, 1–7, 2011.; Ardhuin, F., Chapron, B., and Collard, F.: Observation of swell dissipation across oceans, J. Geophys. Res., 6, 1–5, 2009.; Donelan, M., Hamilton, H., and Hui, W. H.: Directional spectra of wind-generated waves, Philos. T. R. Soc. Lond., 315, 509–562, 1985.; Barber, N. F. and Ursell, F.: The generation an...

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A Quantitative Description of the Norwegian Atlantic Current by Co...

By: K. A. Mork; Ø. Skagseth

Description: Institute of Marine Research and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway. In this study, we quantified the mean flow and the variability in the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC), including the individual branches, with associated error estimates. We accomplished this by combining repeated hydrographic data in the Svinøy section (at 62° N off the coast of Norway toward the northwest) with absolute dynamic sea surface topography data for the ...

Bevington, P. R.: Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Science, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, USA, 1969.; Bochkov, Y. A.: Water temperature in the 0–200 m layer in the Kola-Meridian section in the Barents Sea, 1900–1981, Sb. Nauchn. Trud. PINRO, 46, 113–122, 1982.; Ducet, N., LeTraon, P. Y., and Reverdin, G.: Global high-resolution mapping of ocean circulation from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 and 2, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 19477–19498, 2000.; Gordon, R. L...

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Turbulent Dispersion Properties from a Model Simulation of the Wes...

By: D. Elhmaidi; X. Carton; H. Nefzi

Description: Faculté des Sciences de Tunis –Université Tunis Elmanar, Tunisie. Using a high resolution primitive equation model of the western Mediterranean Sea, we analyzed the dispersion properties of a set of homogeneously distributed, passive particle pairs. These particles were initially separated by different distances D0 (D0 = 5.55, 11.1 and 16.5 km), and were seeded in the model at initial depths of 44 and 500 m.

Babiano, A., Basdevant, C., Leroy, P., and Sadourny, R.: Relative dispersion in two-dimensional turbulence, J. Fluid Mech., 214, 535–557, 1990.; Conkright, M. E., Locarnini, R. A., Garcia, H. E. H.E., O'Brian, T. D., Boyer, T., Stephens, C. and Antonov, J. I.: World Ocean Atlas 2001: Objective Analyses, Data Statistics, and Figures, CD-ROM Documentation 2001, National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, MD, 17, 2002.; Da Silva, A. M., Young, C. C., and Levitus, S.:...

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Corrigendum to Influence of Cross-shelf Water Transport on Nutrien...

By: X. Guo; L. Zhao

Description: Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Ocean University of China, 238 Songling Road, Qingdao 266100, China. No abstract available.

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Lidar Vs. Geodas Land Elevation Data in Hurricane Induced Inundati...

By: L. J. Pietrafesa; H. Liu; M. Xia; M. Peng; T. Yan; S. Bao

Description: Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA. LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and GEODAS (GEOphysical DAta System) are respectively taken as the land elevation data for a 3-D storm surge and inundation model to investigate the subsequent inundation differences. Hilton Head, South Carolina, and Croatan-Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary System (CAPES), North Carolina, ar...

Falconer, R. A. and Owens, P. H.: Numerical simulation of flooding and drying in a depth-averaged tidal flow model, Proceedings Institution Civil Engineers, 83, 161–180, 1987.; Flather, R. A. and Heaps, N. S.: Tidal computations for Morecambe Bay. Geophys, J. R. Astronomical Soc., 42, 489–517, 1975.; Holland, G. J.: An analytic model of the wind and pressure profiles in hurricanes, Monthly Weather Rev., 108, 1212–1218, 1980.; Hubbert, G. D. and McInnes, K. L.: A storm su...

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The Influence of the Brazil and Malvinas Currents on the Southwest...

By: A. R. Piola; E. D. Palma; R. P. Matano

Description: College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. The oceanic circulation over the southwestern Atlantic shelf is influenced by large tidal amplitudes, substantial freshwater discharges, high wind speeds and – most importantly – by its proximity to two of the largest western boundary currents of the world ocean: the Brazil and Malvinas currents. This review article aims to discriminate the dynamical processes ...

Campos, E. J., Velhote, D., and da Silveira, I. C.: Shelf break upwelling driven by Brazil Current cyclonic meanders, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 6, 751–754, 2000.; Acha, E. M., Mianzan, H. W., Guerrero, R. A., Favero, M., and Bava, J.: Marine fronts at the continental shelves of austral South America, physical and ecological processes, J. Mar. Syst., 44, 83–105, 2004.; Bianchi, A. A., Bianucci, L., Piola, A. R., Pino, D. R., Schloss, I., Poisson, A., and Balestrini, C. F.: ...

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Thermophysical Property Anomalies of Baltic Seawater : Volume 6, I...

By: R. Pawlowicz; D. G. Wright; G. M. Marion; R. Feistel

Description: Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung, Seestraße 15, 18119 Warnemünde, Germany. While the thermodynamic properties of Standard Seawater are very well known, the quantitative effect of sea salt composition anomalies on various properties is difficult to estimate since comprehensive lab experiments with the various natural waters are scarce. Coastal and estuarine waters exhibit significant anomalies which also influence to an unknown amount the routine sal...

Alberty, R. A.: Use of Legendre transforms in chemical thermodynamics, Pure Appl. Chem., 73, 1349–1380, 2001.; Brewer, P. G. and Bradshaw, A.: The effects of the non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. Mar. Res., 33, 157–175, 1975.; Chen, C. T. and Millero, F. J.: Precise thermodynamical properties for natural waters covering only the limnological range, Limnol. Oceanogr., 31, 657–662, 1986.; Cockell, C. (Ed.): An Introduction to the Earth-Life Syst...

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Three-dimensional Modelling of Wave-induced Current from the Surf ...

By: F. Lyard; P. Marsaleix; Y. Leredde; F. Bourrin; H. Michaud; C. Mayet; F. Ardhuin; C. Estournel

Description: Géosciences Montpellier, UMR5243, CNRS – Université Montpellier 2 Sciences et Techniques, place E Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France. We develop and implement a new method to take into account the impact of waves into the 3-D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009a) following the simplified equations of Bennis et al. (2011) which use glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008c). These adiabatic equations are completed by addition...

Haas, K. A. and Svendsen, I. A.: Laboratory measurements of the vertical structure of rip currents, J. Geophys. Res., 107, C5, doi:10.1029/2001JC000911, 2002.; Haas, K. A. and Warner, J. C.: Comparing a quasi-3D to a full 3D nearshore circulation model: SHORECIRC and ROMS, Ocean Model., 26, 91–103, 2009.; Haas, K. A., Svendsen, I. A., Haller, M., and Zhao, Q.: Quasi-three-dimensional modeling of rip current systems, J. G...

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Geostrophic Currents and Kinetic Energies in the Black Sea Estimat...

By: P. -m. Poulain; M. Menna

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale – OGS, Trieste, Italy. Drifter measurements and satellite altimetry data are merged to reconstruct the surface geostrophic circulation of the Black Sea in the period 1999–2009. This combined dataset is used to estimate pseudo-Eulerian velocity statistics for different time periods. Seasonal and interannual variability of currents and kinetic energy fields are described with particular attention...

Atlas, R., Ardizzone, J. V., Hoffman, R., Jusem, J. C., and Leidner, S. M.: Cross-calibrated, multi-platform ocean surface wind velocity product (MEaSUREs Project), Guide Document, Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), JPL, Pasadena, California, Version 1.0., 26 pp., 2009.; Centurioni, L. R., Ohlmann, J. C., and Niiler, P. P.: Permanent meanders in the California Current System, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 1690–1710,

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Operational Ocean Forecasting in the Eastern Mediterranean: Implem...

By: D. R. Hayes; G. Georgiou; N. Skliris; S. Sofianos; G. Zodiatis; R. Lardner; A. Lascaratos

Description: Oceanography Centre, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus. The Cyprus Coastal Ocean Forecasting and Observing System (CYCOFOS) has been producing operational flow forecasts of the northeastern Levantine Basin since 2002 and has been substantially improved in 2005. CYCOFOS uses the POM flow model, and recently, within the frame of the MFSTEP project, the flow model was upgraded to use the hourly SKIRON atmospheric forcing, and its r...

Pinardi, N., Allen, I., Demirov, E., De Mey, P., Korres, G., Lascaratos, A., Le Traon, P. Y., Maillard, C., Manzella, G., and Tziavos, C.: The Mediterranean ocean forecasting system: first phase of implementation (1998–2001), Ann. Geophys., 21, 3–20, 2003.; Schlitzer, R.: Ocean Data View, http://odv.awi.de, 2006.; Smagorinsky, J.: General circulation experiments with the primitive equations. Part I: the basic experiment, Mon. Weather Rev., 91, 99–165, 1963.; Sofianos, S....

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