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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web Radiofrequenc...

By: Richard M. Nunno

Summary: The radio spectrum, a limited and valuable resource, is used for all forms of wireless communications including cellular telephony, paging, personal communications service, radio and television broadcast, telephone radio relay, aeronautical and maritime radio navigation, and satellite command and control. The federal government manages the spectrum to maximize efficiency in its use and to prevent interference among spectrum users. The National Telecommunications...

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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web Radiofrequenc...

By: Richard M. Nunno

Summary: The radio spectrum, a limited and valuable resource, is used for all forms of wireless communications including cellular telephony, paging, personal communications service, radio and television broadcast, telephone radio relay, aeronautical and maritime radio navigation, and satellite command and control. The federal government manages the spectrum to maximize efficiency in its use and to prevent interference among spectrum users. The National Telecommunications...

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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web Border and Tr...

By: Lisa M. Seghetti

Summary: Border and Transportation Security (BTS) is a pivotal function in protecting the American people from terrorists and their instruments of destruction. This report addresses selected programs and policies now in place that seek to attain higher levels of BTS. It is the second in a three-part series of CRS reports that make use of analytical frameworks to better understand complex phenomena and cast them in terms that facilitate consideration of alternative polici...

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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web Iraq : Oil-Fo...

By: Kenneth Katzman

Summary: The “oil-for-food” program (OFFP) was the centerpiece of a long-standing U.N. Security Council effort to alleviate human suffering in Iraq while maintaining key elements of the 1991 Gulf war-related sanctions regime. In order to ensure that Iraq remained contained and that only humanitarian needs were served by the program, the program imposed controls on Iraqi oil exports and humanitarian imports. All Iraqi oil revenues legally earned under the program were hel...

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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web Federal Resea...

By: Michael E. Davey

Summary: The Bush Administration has requested $132. billion in federal research and development (R&D) funding for FY2006. This sum, represents a $505 million increase over the FY2005 estimated funding level of $131.7 billion. In real dollars, total federal R&D would decline for the first time since FY1996. The proposed FY2006 R&D budget reflects the Administration’s objective of constraining the growth of federal discretionary spending.

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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web Nonproliferat...

By: Amy F. Woolf

Summary: Congress passed the Nunn-Lugar amendment, authorizing U.S. threat reduction assistance to the former Soviet Union, in November 1991, after a failed coup in Moscow and the disintegration of the Soviet Union raised concerns about the safety and security of Soviet nuclear weapons. The annual program has grown from $400 million in the DOD budget over $900 million across three agencies -- DOD ($409. million) DOE ($472.6 million) and the State Department ($70 million)...

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Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web Homeland Security...

By: Jeffrey W. Seifert

Summary: This report assesses the impact of the September 11, 2001 attacks on public and private information infrastructures in the context of critical infrastructure protection, continuity of operations (COOP) planning, and homeland security. Analysis of the effects of the terrorist attacks suggests various “lessons learned.” These lessons support three general principles. The first principle emphasizes the establishment and practice of comprehensive continuity and reco...

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Crs Report for Congress Received through the Crs Web Border and Tr...

By: Jennifer E. Lake

Summary: Enhancing border and transportation security (BTS) are essential strategies for improving and maintaining homeland security. Border security entails regulating the flow of traffic across the nation’s borders so that dangerous and unwanted goods and people are detected and denied entry. This requires a sophisticated border management system that balances the need for securing the nation’s borders with facilitating the essential free flow of legitimate commerce, c...

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The Rise of China and Its Effect on Taiwan, Japan, And South Korea...

By: Dick K. Nanto

Summary: The economic rise of China and the growing network of trade and investment relations in northeast Asia are causing major changes in human, economic, political, and military interaction among countries in the region. This is affecting U.S. relations with China, China’s relations with its neighbors, the calculus for war across the Taiwan Straits, and the basic interests and policies of China, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea. These, in turn, affect U.S. strategy in ...

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An Applications Guide to Pedestrian Snm Monitors

By: Paul E. Fehlau

Introduction: Pedestrian special nuclear material (SNM) monitors offer a rapid, effective means to search for SNM as an individual departs a material-access or protected area. The SNM monitors sense gamma radiation emitted by nuclear materials, which is a more specific clue to the presence of the material than is its visual or tactile appearance. Best performance is obtained from well-designed monitors when the monitors are situated away from interfering radiation fields...

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Bureau of Export Administration

By: Johnnie E. Frazier

Excerpt: As a follow up to our February 23, 2001, draft report, attached is a final copy of the second report required by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000. As you know, this legislation mandates that by March 30 of each year through 2007, we issue a report to the Congress on the policies and procedures of the U.S. government with respect to the export of technologies and technical information to countries and entities of concern. This second re...

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European Union's Arms Embargo on China : Implications and Options ...

By: Kristin Archick

Background: Policy Dilemmas. The European Union (EU) is considering lifting its arms embargo on the People’s Republic of China (PRC), imposed after the June 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown. Many countries imposed sanctions on China, after Deng Xiaoping and other PRC rulers ordered the military, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), to violently suppress peaceful demonstrators in Beijing on June 4, 1989. (Although the killing of demonstrators took place beyond the Tiananmen...

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Export Administration Act of 1979 Reauthorization

By: Ian F. Fergusson

Summary: The Export Administration Act of 2001 was introduced on January 23, 2001. Hearings were held by the Senate Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Committee, and the bill, S. 149, was reported for consideration by the full Senate by a vote of 19- 1 on March 22, 2001. The Senate debated the measure on September 4-6, and it passed 85-14 with three amendments. A companion version in the House, H.R. 2581, was introduced by Rep. Gilman on July 20, 2001. The House Interna...

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Research Studies Series Military Airlift and Aircraft Procurement:...

By: Marcelle Size Knaack

Preface: This is the third in a series of research studies- historical works that were not published for various reasons. Yet, the material contained therein was deemed to be of enduring value to Air Force members and scholars. These were minimally edited and printed in a limited edition to reach a small audience that may find them useful. We invite readers to provide feedback to the Air Force History and Museums Program. The author, Marcelle S. Knaack, a member of the O...

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Microelectronic Information Processing Systems

By: Bernard Chern

Excerpt: The MIPS Division: The area of Computing Systems, which involves the structure of computers, is central to MIPS. This is a core area of computer science and engineering and in the 1990's encompasses much more than just hardware. Computing systems deals with computer architecture, hardware implementation, system software (operating systems and compilers), networking, and data storage systems. The advent of gigabit networks, high performance microprocessors and pa...

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Unlocking Our Future: Toward a New National Science Policy

By: F. James Sensenbrenner

Excerpt: The notion of state support for scientific research has existed for centuries; Francis Bacon called for such funding as far back as the early 1600s, and some monarchs and nobles responded to his call. It was not until 1862, however, when the Land Grant Colleges were established, that the United States began to organize and provide federal support for its science and engineering enterprise. Even so, it took until the outbreak of World War II for the Nation to ful...

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Unlocking Our Future : Toward a New National Science Policy

By: F. James Sensenbrenner

Government Printing Office publication for the Federal Depository Library:

Descriptions: This document contains information on the issue of science for society.

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Chapter 5 Satellite Launches in the Prc : Hughes

By: Federal Depository Library

Government Printing Office publication for the Federal Depository Library:

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Report of the Presidents Commission on Implementation of United St...

Executive Summary: On January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced a new vision for America?s civil space program that calls for human and robotic missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. This vision set forth goals of: returning the Space Shuttle safely to flight; completing the International Space Station (ISS); phasing out the Space Shuttle when the ISS is complete (about 2010); sending a robotic orbiter and Lander to the Moon; sending a human expedition to the...

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Web-Based Instruction and Learning: Responding to K-14 Customer Ne...

Preface: The September Learning Technologies Conference focused on how effectively the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement projects are meeting their K-14 customers? needs. The areas identified for project presentations and discussion during the break-out sessions were derived from the Analysis and Needs Assessment conducted by The Pennsylvania State University and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) as part of the DFRC?s Learning Technologies Project. As in the Marc...

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