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Meris-based Ocean Colour Classification with the Discrete Forel–ule Scale : Volume 9, Issue 4 (31/08/2012)

By Wernand, M. R.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003981926
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 33
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Meris-based Ocean Colour Classification with the Discrete Forel–ule Scale : Volume 9, Issue 4 (31/08/2012)  
Author: Wernand, M. R.
Volume: Vol. 9, Issue 4
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection (Contemporary), Copernicus GmbH
Publication Date:
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications


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Van Der Woerd, H. J., Hommersom, A., & Wernand, M. R. (2012). Meris-based Ocean Colour Classification with the Discrete Forel–ule Scale : Volume 9, Issue 4 (31/08/2012). Retrieved from

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Physical Oceanography, Marine Optics & Remote Sensing, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands. Multispectral information from satellite borne ocean colour sensors is at present used to characterize natural waters via the retrieval of concentration of the three dominant optical constituents; pigments of phytoplankton, non-algal particles and coloured dissolved organic matter. A limitation of this approach is that accurate retrieval of these constituents requires detailed local knowledge of the specific absorption and scattering properties. In addition, the retrieval algorithms generally use only a limited part of the collected spectral information. In this paper we present an additional new algorithm that has the merit to use the full spectral information in the visible domain to characterize natural waters in a simple and globally valid way. This Forel–Ule MERIS (FUME) algorithm converts the normalized multi-band reflectance information into a discrete set of numbers using uniform colourimetric functions. The Forel–Ule scale is a sea colour comparator scale that has been developed to cover all possible natural sea colours, ranging from indigo blue (the open ocean) to brownish-green (coastal water) and even brown (humic-acid dominated) waters. Data using this scale have been collected since the late nineteenth century, and therefore, this algorithm creates the possibility to compare historic ocean colour data with present-day satellite ocean colour observations. The FUME algorithm was tested by transforming a number of MERIS satellite images into Forel–Ule colour index images and comparing in situ observed FU numbers with FU numbers modelled from in situ radiometer measurements.

MERIS-based ocean colour classification with the discrete Forel–Ule scale

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