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First Laboratory Study of Air–sea Gas Exchange at Hurricane Wind Speeds : Volume 10, Issue 2 (23/04/2014)

By Krall, K. E.

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Book Id: WPLBN0004020187
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 9
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: First Laboratory Study of Air–sea Gas Exchange at Hurricane Wind Speeds : Volume 10, Issue 2 (23/04/2014)  
Author: Krall, K. E.
Volume: Vol. 10, Issue 2
Language: English
Subject: Science, Ocean, Science
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2014
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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Jähne, B., & Krall, K. E. (2014). First Laboratory Study of Air–sea Gas Exchange at Hurricane Wind Speeds : Volume 10, Issue 2 (23/04/2014). Retrieved from http://www.worldlibrary.net/


Description
Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. In a pilot study conducted in October and November 2011, air–sea gas transfer velocities of the two sparingly soluble trace gases hexafluorobenzene and 1,4-difluorobenzene were measured in the unique high-speed wind-wave tank at Kyoto University, Japan. This air–sea interaction facility is capable of producing hurricane strength wind speeds of up to u10 =67 m s−1. This constitutes the first lab study of gas transfer at such high wind speeds. The measured transfer velocities k600 spanned two orders of magnitude, lying between 11 cm h−1 and 1180 cm h−1 with the latter being the highest ever measured wind-induced gas transfer velocity. The measured gas transfer velocities are in agreement with the only available data set at hurricane wind speeds (McNeil and D'Asaro, 2007). The disproportionately large increase of the transfer velocities found at highest wind speeds indicates a new regime of air–sea gas transfer, which is characterized by strong wave breaking, enhanced turbulence and bubble cloud entrainment.

Summary
First laboratory study of air–sea gas exchange at hurricane wind speeds

Excerpt
McNeil, C. and D'Asaro, E.: Parameterization of air sea gas fluxes at extreme wind speeds, J. Marine Syst., 66, 110–121, 2007.; Memery, L. and Merlivat, L.: Modelling of gas flux through bubbles at the air-water interface, Tellus B, 37, 272–285, 1985.; Ambrose, D., Ewing, M. B., Ghiassee, N. B., and Sanchez Ochoa, J. C.: The ebulliometric method of vapour pressure measurement: vapour pressures of benzene, hexafluorobenzene, and naphthalene, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 22, 589–605, 1990.; Asher, W. E., Higgins, B. J., Karle, L. M., Farley, P. J., Sherwood, C. R., Gardiner, W. W., Wanninkhof, R., Chen, H., Lantry, T., Steckley, M., Monahan, E. C., Wang, Q., and Smith, P. M.: Measurement of gas transfer, whitecap coverage, and brightness temperature in a surf pool: an overview of WABEX-93, in: Air-Water Gas Transfer, Selected Papers, 3rd Intern. Symp. on Air-Water Gas Transfer, edited by: Jähne, B. and Monahan, E., 207–216, AEON, Hanau, 1995.; Asher, W. E., Karle, L. M., Higgins, B. J., Farley, P. J., Monahan, E. C., and Leifer, I. S.: The influence of bubble plumes on air-seawater gas transfer velocities, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12027–12041, 1996.; Bates, N. R., Knap, A. H., and Michaels, A. F.: Contribution of hurricanes to local and global estimates of air-sea exchange of CO2, Nature, 395, 58–61, 1998.; Coantic, M.: A model of gas transfer across air–water interfaces with capillary waves, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 3925–3943, 1986.; Deacon, E. L.: Gas transfer to and across an air-water interface, Tellus, 29, 363–374, 1977.; Farmer, D. M., McNeil, C. L., and Johnson, B. D.: Evidence for the importance of bubbles in increasing air-sea gas flux, Nature, 361, 620–623, 1993.; Freire, M. G., Razzouk, A., Mokbel, I., Jose, J., Marrucho, I. M., and Coutinho, J. A. P.: Solubility of hexafluorobenzene in aqueous salt solutions from (280 to 340) K, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 50, 237–242, 2005.; Jähne, B., Münnich, K. O., and Siegenthaler, U.: Measurements of gas-exchange and momentum-transfer in a circular wind-water tunnel, Tellus, 31, 321–329, 1979.; Jähne, B., Heinz, G., and Dietrich, W.: Measurement of the diffusion coefficients of sparingly soluble gases in water, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 10767–10776, 1987.; Jähne, B., Libner, P., Fischer, R., Billen, T., and Plate, E. J.: Investigating the transfer process across the free aqueous boundary layer by the controlled flux method, Tellus, 41B, 177–195, 1989.; Keeling, R. F.: On the role of large bubbles in air-sea gas exchange and supersaturation in the ocean, J. Marine Res., 51, 237–271, 1993.; Kestin, J., Sokolov, M., and Wakeham, W. A.: Viscosity of liquid water in the range −8 °C to 150 °C, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 7, 941–948, 1978.; Komori, S. and Shimada, T.: Gas transfer across a wind-driven air-water interface and the effects of sea water on CO2 transfer, in: Air-Water Gas Transfer, Selected Papers, 3rd Intern. Symp. on Air-Water Gas Transfer, edited by: Jähne, B. and Monahan, E., 553–569, AEON, Hanau, 1995.; Krall, K. E.: Laboratory Investigations of Air-Sea Gas Transfer under a Wide Range of Water Surface Conditions, Ph.D. Thesis, available at: http://www.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/archiv/14392 (last access: 14 April 2014), Institut für Umweltphysik, Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, University of Heidelberg, 2013.; Liss, P. S. and Merlivat, L.: Air-sea gas exchange rates: Introduction and synthesis, in: The role of air-sea exchange in geochemical cycling, edited by: Buat-Menard, P., 113–129, Reidel, Boston, MA, 1986.; McGillis, W. R., Edson, J. B., Hare, J. E., and Fairall, C. W.: Direct covariance air-sea CO2 fluxes, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 16729–16745, 2001.; Merlivat, L. and Memery, L.: Gas exchange across an air-water interface: experimental results and modeling of bubble contribution to transfer, J. Geophys. Res., 88, 707–724, 1983.; Monahan, E. C. and Spillane

 

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